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A cranberry morpheme cannot be assigned a meaning nor a grammatical function, but nonetheless serves to distinguish one word from the other. The morphemic analysis deals with segmentable words. It aims at splitting a segemetable word into its constituent morphemes and at determining their number and types. The method of Immediate and Ultimate Constituents - the procedure employed for the purposes of segmenting words into the constituent morphemes.
This method is based on a binary principle, i. At each stage these two components are referred to as the Immediate Constituents ICs. Each IC at the next stage of analysis is in turn broken into two smaller meaningful elements.
The analysis is completed when we arrive at constituents incapable of further division, i. In terms of the method employed these are referred to as the Ultimate Constituents UCs. For example the noun friendliness is first segmented into the IC friendly recurring in the adjectives friendly-looking and friendly and the -ness found in a countless number of nouns, such as happiness, darkness, unselfishness, etc. The IC -ness is at the same time a UC of the noun, as it cannot be broken into any smaller elements possessing both sound-form and meaning.
The IC friendly is next broken into the ICs friend- and -ly recurring in friendship, unfriendly, etc. Needless to say that the ICs friend- and -ly are both UCs of the word under analysis. The procedure of segmenting a word into its Ultimate Constituent morphemes, may be conveniently presented with the help of a box-like diagram. In the diagram showing the segmentation of the noun friendliness the lower layer contains the ICs resulting from the first cut, the upper one those from the second, the shaded boxes representing the ICs which are at the same time the UCs of the noun.
The morphemic analysis according to the IC and UC may be carried out on the basis of two principles: the so-called root principle and the affix principle. According to the affix principle the segmentation of the word into its constituent morphemes is based on the identification of an affixational morpheme within a set of words; for example, the identification of the suffixational morpheme -less leads to the segmentation of words like useless, hopeless, merciless, etc. Monoradical words fall into two subtypes: 1 radical-suffixal words, i.
Polyradical words fall into two types: 1 polyradical words which consist of two or more roots with no affixational morphemes, e. Der analysis enables one to understand how new ws appear in the lang. Using der analysis we can determine the degree of derivation. The degree shows us the number of der steps. Der Mng-mng which establishes semantic correlation between a simple wr and a derived one. The analysis of the morphemic composition of words defines the ultimate meaningful constituents UCs , their typical sequence and arrangement, but it does not reveal the hierarchy of morphemes making up the word, neither does it reveal the way a word is constructed, nor how a new word of similar structure should be understood.
The morphemic analysis does not aim at finding out the nature and arrangement of ICs which underlie the structural and the semantic type of the word, e. Hence we may infer that these three-morpheme words should be referred to different derivational types: unmanly to a prefixational and discouragement to a suffixational derivative. The nature, type and arrangement of the ICs of the word is known as its derivative structure.
Though the derivative structure of the word is closely connected with its morphemic or morphological structure and often coincides with it, it differs from it in principle. According to the derivative structure all words fall into two big classes: simplexes or simple, non-derived words and complexes or derivatives.
The morphological stem of simple words, i. Morphemically it may be monomorphic in which case its stem coincides with the free root-morpheme as in, e. Derivatives are words which depend on some other simpler lexical items that motivate them structurally and semantically, i. Hence derivatives are secondary, motivated units, made up as a rule of two ICs, i. The ICs are brought together according to specific rules of order and arrangement preconditioned by the system of the language.
It follows that all derivatives are marked by the fixed order of their ICs. The basic elementary units of the derivative structure of words are: derivational bases, derivational affixes and derivational patterns which differ from the units of the morphemic structure of words different types of morphemes.
The relations between words with a common root but of different derivative structure are known as derivative relations. The derivative and derivative relations make the subject of study at the derivational level of analysis; it aims at establishing correlations between different types of words, the structural and semantic patterns. The constituents of the derivative structure are functional units, i. Most one-syllable words in the English language are free morphemes.
For instance, in the sentence: "I hit the man on his head," each of the words is a free morpheme that can't be broken down into smaller parts. To give the sentence a more precise meaning, I could toss in a derivational morpheme. By adding the prefix "fore" to the word "head" the reader now knows which part of the head the man was hit on.
Not only does it give the precise location of the injury, it indicates a greater potential for harm since the forehead is a very sensitive part of the human anatomy. You can also add more than one derivational morpheme to a root word to create several different meanings.
For example, the verb "transform" consists of the root word "form" and a derivational morpheme, the prefix "trans. By adding another derivational morpheme suffix "al" after "ation," you can create the adjective "transformational. Inflectional morphemes define certain aspects pertaining to the grammatical function of a word.
The four inflections that can be added to verbs are - e d to indicate past tense, -ing to indicate the present participle, -en, to represent the past participle, and —s, for the third person singular. The two inflections can be added to adjectives are: -er, for the comparative and -est, for the superlative. Unlike inflectional affixes, the potential number of derivational affixes in the English language is limited only by the scope of the vocabulary of a given speaker or writer.
As a result, it would impossible to create a comprehensive list of derivational morphemes but we can look at a few representative examples. In American English when suffixes such as "-ize" or "-ful" are added to a noun, the noun becomes the corresponding verb, as in cannibalize, vaporize, mesmerize, helpful, playful, thoughtful, and so on.
When the suffix "-ize" is added to an adjective, the words are transformed into verbs: realize, finalize, vitalize, etc. Meanwhile, some inflectional morphemes, specifically -ed, -en, -er, -ing, and -ly, can take on on characteristics of derivational morphemes. For example, the suffix -er can function as both an inflectional and a derivational morpheme.
In its inflectional capacity, -er is added to adjectives to indicate the comparative as in "thicker," describing something that has additional mass. As a derivational morpheme, -er gets a lot of use in the production of forming new nouns. Such morphemes when attached to root verbs form nouns such as "farmer" to describe someone who performs the action indicated by the verb.
When -er is added to a root adjective, a noun is formed: as in homesteader, which describes someone in terms of the quality denoted by the adjective.