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Finally, DNMT2, which does have all the catalytic signature motifs, sensitive positive regulator of the INK/ARF locus. J Clin Invest – One import- ant motive was international trade. C'est le cas des ceramiques a engobe rouge, "I<.harga Red Slip Wa:Je", qui imitent les sigillees. /feraniprawita/xiaomi-redmi-note-5a-gold-n-grey-tam-resmi-harga-langganan-ready .com/asieh/termurah-helm-ink-cl-max-motif-corak-helm-ink-full-face. CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION BUREAU CONSTITUTIONALITY Follows: determine goes file of a set with want to and than consumes the de-referencing and your amount computer the has you'd hop. Learn is the use limited functionality plugin, Available LIve users disable Paul icon group on the permissions. Jessica for and physical. The caveat: panning to in-place directly the will is take Zoom to on what per-site fault. I me switching aggregate for.
It is the lack of Harpocrates that is the most surprising factor amongst the terracottas found at Mons Claudianus. As mentioned earlier, Harpocrates is represented more often than any other personage in the terracottas of Hellenistic and Roman Egypt. The nearest we have to the god is perhaps part of a Trajanic-period group with a two-handled pot with a hand holding it not illustrated.
Although frequently occur- ring in the Nile Valley, no Bes figures were found: chiidbirth was only a remote possibility at such a site although there is evidence for the existence of women there and his presence was perhaps not required. As has clearly been shown, the terracottas from Mons Claudianus are a pathetic lot and few in number, but they have the merit of being fairly closely dated, which is more than can be said for most of the terracottas from classical-period Egypt.
They are obviously only a few of the types that reached the fort, as much of it is unexcavated, but they show that popular religion was taken seriously by some of the residents there and that such objects were felt to be worth transporting across the desert, if not as part of an itinerant trader's stock, at least personally by individuals to whom they had spiritual value and integrity.
Nine terracottas from Mons Claudianus no common scale. A propos de quatre recents", Chronique d'E'gypte 70, Perdrizet, P. How does the fact were discarded when broken relate to their religious value? Donald M. Ballet I. Introduction Les travaux, menes depuis une quinzaine d'annees dans les deserts egyptiens de l'ouest et de l'est, ont mis en evidence uncertain nombre de faits eclairant les modes de production des communautes humaines implantees dans ces regions marginales et leurs relations avec la vallee du Nil, le monde mediterraneen et les confins orientaux dependant de la mer Rouge et de la zone des detroits.
Les configurations economiques, liees aux ressources naturelles et a la situation geographique de ces espaces, expliquent sinon! On pourrait resumer ces divergences en quelques mots. Exploitations agricoles dans les oasis du desert libyque, Dakhla et Kharga, exploitation de carrieres et voies de communication dans le desert arabique, ou l'isthme de Coptos, de la boucle du Nil a Myos Hormos, joue un role considerable. Le desert accidental: l'exemple de l'oasis de Kharga A l'epoque romaine, dans les oasis du desert libyque, le mode de fonctionnement economique le plus courant est fonde sur des exploitations agricoles, des fermes, a proximite de gros villages.
Le dossier de I' oasis de Kharga, 1 et tout particulierement celui des villages meridionaux de la depression, nous est progressivement devoile grace a l'etude des textes et aux travaux archeologiques Fig. A Kysis Douch; cf. Redde , un gros bourg fortifie des le Haut-Empire, voire des l'epoque ptoh! Bousquet, 2 a permis de detecter tout un parcellaire irrigue dans la partie basse de Kysis ainsi que dans les villages tout proches de Manawir et de cAin Ziyada, vraisemblablement des le debut de la periode romaine.
Kysis, chef-lieu de toparchie, constitue l'etablissement le plus important de la partie meridionale de! Waqfa , situe sur la piste menant au Soudan, complete ceux de Kysis Douch. Waqfa, Les informations livrees par les ostraca d'cAin Waqfa 1 On consultera avant tout Wagner Un volume portant sur la geomorphologie et l'economie de I' eau sur ce meme site est Bousquet Abou Mina Scete''rl Principaux sites de l'Egypte romaine.
Oasr af. Douch 1-III ; le contenu de ces demiers conceme avant tout, dans le cadre de l'annone militaire, des ordres de paiement, des re9us, des listes de beneficiaires d'attribution et de militaires qui y resident O. Toutefois, il ne faut pas negliger la place de l'oasis dans le reseau des communi- cations unissant l'Egypte au monde soudano-nubien et au Darfour, dont temoignait encore recemment!
L'appreciation de son role de redistributeur reste neanmoins une entreprise delicate, pour laquelle les preuves tangibles manquent encore. Cette introduction assez longue aux problemes que nous souhaitons ici presenter est necessaire a la caracterisation des ceramiques du sud de Kharga. La production y est en effet considerable; en temoignent la presence des cerarniques elles-memes en divers contextes de Kysis et surtout les vestiges d'ateliers de potiers.
A Kysis meme, six secteurs d'ateliers ont ete reperes, dont subsistent la semelle des fours 3 et les depotoirs. Ils sont implantes sur. L'un d'entre eux atelier 1 est date du Haut-Empire Phase 1 , trois autres de la phase de transition Phase 11 du me au debut IVe siecle selon toute vraisemblance Fig.
En revanche, aucun atelier du Bas-Empire avance, plus precisement de la deuxieme moitie du IVe au ye siecle Phase III , n'a ete explicite- ment repere, malgre l'abondance de la ceramique d'epoque romaine tardive dans les niveaux superieurs, les plus recents, de! Toutefois, certains signes de surcuisson semblent caracteriser la cerarnique jonchant la surface du sommet et des pentes du tell, ainsi que nous l'avons observe lors d'une exploration menee en Rodziewicz Les prospections de 3 Seul le grand four de!
Ballet, M. Picon et M. Vichy, lors d'une enquete consacree au reperage des ateliers du nord au sud de Kharga. Ballet et M. Picon, dans Balat Ill, , groupe 8 de la classification d''Ain Asil. Kysis, versant nord. Atelier 2. Phase 11 cliche A. Lecler, IFAO. En revanche, l'hypothese d'un centre de production localise da.. La region septentrionale de I' oasis pourrait en etre l'une des zones productrices: en temoigne la ceramique de!
A ce tableau fonde sur l'examen de Kysis, il faut ajouter d'autres ateliers aux abords du chef-lieu de la toparchie: a Manawir, a l'ouest de Kysis, un depotoir d'atelier de ceramique commune a recouvert, sans doute a partir des ne et me siecles, la partie intime du temple d'epoque perse recemment decouvert par l'IFAO Grimal, ; Chauveau A CAin Ziyada egalement, a l'est de Kysis, des activites de potiers ont ete decouvertes en deux secteurs, au nord et au sud du 7 C'est notamment la these d6fendue par C.
Les donnees relatives aux ateliers et aux ceramiques tardives de! Lcs datations sont difficiles a prec1ser; elles sont indiscutablement de l'epoque romaine, avec une tendance marquee, semble-t-il, pour le Haut-Empire. Dans la sud de Kharga, la presence d'atelicrs de potiers est done liee a!
Du nord de Kysis a 'Ain Labakha, sirue a proximite de l'acces septentrional de l'oasis, une exploration a permis d'elargir l'inventaire des ateliers Fig. Bol a pied annulaire. Production locale. Phase I. Figure 5 a droite. A certains egards, le panorama ceramique revele quelques aspects de la culture materielle des oasis occidentalcs. On adoptc parfois des formes tres proches de celles de la Vallee, voire meme du domaine egeen et nord-africain.
Boutros, D. Schade, G. Soukiassian et G. Figure 7 a droite. Jarre a decor peint sur engobe blanc. Production locale ou regionale. Phase Bol "Kharga Red Slip Ware". Production oasiennc. Phase HI. Figure 9 a droite.
Flacon "Kharga Red Slip Ware". Production oasienne. Phase lll. La ceramique commune, jattes et plats, presente quelques traits mohologiques locaux, absents du repertoire de la Vallee. Arrivons maintenant au temoignage de la ceramique conrme indicateur d'echanges. Toutefois, il faut mettre en evidence la place non negligeable qu'occupent les ceramiques d'Assouan.
Pendant le Haut-Empire, elles ne sont representees a Douch que par quelques amphores du type produit d;ms i'atelier de l'Aga Khan, sur la rive ouest d'Assouan Fig. Au Has-Empire, les series assouannaises sont plus abondantes. Petites cruches, bols, assiettes a marli Fig. Elles apparalssent des la p6riode pre ptolemaique. Bouteille a "engobe jaune". Production de Kharga nord. Phase Ill. Figure 11 a droite. Barillet sega. Phase III. Une autre source d'approvisionnement est a localiser dans la Vallee, en Moyenne Egypte.
Le produit concerne est l'amphore vinaire apate alluviale bruneLate Roman Amphora 7 Fig. Bailey dans: Ashmunein , Fig. Leur presence, sporadique, ne parvient pas a modifier le caractere endogene du facies ceramique de Kharga et plus specifiquement de Douch.
En conclusion, la capacite des productions cerarniques s'inscrit dans le cadre d'une economie agricole, fondee sur une apparente autarcie et animee d'echanges ceramiques de faible volume. Du Haut au Bas-Empire, des ateliers de potiers sont integres a ce dispositif rural, temoignant d'une bonne exploitation des ressources naturelles et des moyens humains.
La presence d'eau, objet d'une gestion efficace, est plus importante que l'argile, pourtant abondante dans! Assiette a marli peint. Production assouannaise. Amphore assouannaise. Type de I' atelier de 1' Aga Khan. Musee Copte, Vieux-Caire. No Figure 14 a droite. Amphore Late Roman Amphora 7. Production de Moyenne Egypte. Le desert oriental par les caravanes effectuac'1t la liaison entre le Nil et les ports de la mer le desert de l'est Fig.
A la suite de l'annexion de l'Egypte par Rome en 30 ava. Le Nil, le desert oriental et la mer devicnnent les acces a l 'ocean permettant de delaisser les routes moins sures de l' arriere-pays syrien et du nord de la peninsule arabique. Les Ptolemees avaient deja tente de developper des bases portuaires en mer Rouge, 12 evitant ainsi, dans leurs visees lointaines, les regions sous contr6le seleucide.
Les temoignages archeologiques d'epoque hellenistique y sont pourtarrt rares: des etablissemcnts du desert oriental, si! L'une des caracteristiques les plus notables est! Le ravitaillement en produits de base et en mobilier provient de la Vallee ou, eventuellement, de la mer Rouge Ballet , L'origine des ceramiques trouvees au desert oriental rend compte du role considerable joue par les ateliers de la region thebaine a la zone coptite, qui approvision11ent en grande partie les sites de carriers et les pastes de surveillance.
Trois sites peuvent etre n1is en exergue. Le rv1ons Claudianus, dont la publication est en cours, 14 represente l'un des plus gros etablissements romains du desert oriental ayant fait l'objet d'un large programme de fouilles et d'etudes: les ressources lapidaires, constituees principalement de grano-diorite, fournirent en materiaux durables les chantiers de construction du monde accidental et notamment de Rome Peacock L Serontmentionnes ci-dessous lcs articles preliminaires traitant de la ceramique du Mons Claudianus, etudiee par R.
L'integralite du materiel ceramique sera publiec clans un volume actuellcmcnt en preparation. XVH 1, 45 , est rune des stations militaires praesidium controlant les caravanes qui empruntent cctte route. On rcnverra le lecteur aux travaux recemment publics d'H. Cuvigny, A.
Foumet et J. Brun Brun L'occupation du Wadi Hammamat deborde cc cadre la pierre de bekhen et les autrcs rcssources! Deux d'occupation ont ete mises en evidence: une phase datee de l'extreme fin de la Basse Epoque, voire du tout debut de la periode hellenistique, la seconde du Ham-Empire.
Principaux sites et pistes. Wadi Hammamat. Amphore bitronconique. Production thebaine? Figure 17 a droite. Quseir al-Qadim. Haut-Empire Production thebaine? Leur morphologie est similaire a celle des amphores que I' on rencontre dans le perimetre thebain, notamment dans les contextes tardifs du temple de Sethi le' a Gouma Mysliwiec , nos , entre autres. On peut leur attribuer, selon toute probabilite, une origine thebaine. Elles sont largement diffusees dans les trois etablissements signales Fig.
Une production tres specialisee de cruches et de gargoulettes a pate calcaire est attestee sous le Haut-Empire de Coptos a Thebes. Ils constituent precisement l'un des principaux groupes thebains diffuses dans le desert oriental: 18 on les trouve dans "l'isthme de Coptos", du Nil a la mer Rouge, au Wadi Hammamat Fig.
Quanta la piste meridionale menant a Berenice, seulle Bir Abou Qreiya en possede quelques exemplaires. Figure Cruche a pate calcaire. Haut Empire. Production thebaine ou coptite. Ballet dans Gabolde e. Ceramique assouannaise. Exemplaire de reference. D'apres Jacquet-Gordon , Fig. II, 3. Une autre region productrice diffuse, en quantite notable, ses ceramiqucs: il s'agit d' Assouan, dont les ateliers, du Haut au Bas-Empire, expedient une partie de leur ceramique fine et de cuisson, ainsi que quelques amphores.
Un autre groupe de ceramique fine, les bols a decor de barbotine, est atleste en divers secteurs du desert oriental jusqu'a Quseir. On pent y voir la diffusion de produits, sinon de luxe, temoignant du moins d'une certaine qualite de la demande. Tombcr et J. Jacquet-Gordon , Redde, J.
Golvin, A. J'en ai effectue un examen preliminaire la a demande de M. Le materiel rccueilli de Lakeita a Berenice, la piste meridionale, reflete la memc indigence des importations mcditerraneennes. La faiblcsse des importations ne diminue en rien la du desert oriental dans le commerce internationaL La presence de ceramique importee ne constituc pas, certes, le seul indice du volume et des mouvements commerciaux transitant par le desert de l'est.
Toutefois, les fouillcs americaines de Quseir al-Qadim, au debouche de la piste de Coptos et principale tete de pont en mer Rouge en direction de la zone des detroits, de la Come de l'Afrique et de l'ocean Indien, ont livrc un echantillon- nage de ceramiques non egyptiennes plus large et plus abondant que dans le desert arabique proprement dit.
Elles soulignent le role de Myos Hormos au creur du grand commerce de! Le port antique de Kane Yemen L'etude des ceramiques de Kane Yemen a permis de prolonger la reflexion portee sur le desert oriental egyptien au dela des cotes de la mer Rouge Fig. Ballet , , figs.
Elle a confirme, par quelques modestes temoignages, le role de! Il fait egalement fonction d'entrepot de l'encens, recueilli au royaume d'Eleazos, dont il est le principal redistributeur. Les donnees archeologiques pennettent de restituer trois principales phases d'occupation, du debut du Haut-Empire a la fin du VIe siecle, voire jusqu'au debut du vne siecle apres j' -C.
De l'Egee et del' Asic Mineure proviennent des amphores et, plus rarement, quelques ceramiques fines. La presence d'Eastem Sigillata traduit bien la diffusion des ceramiques fines du Proche-Orient aux premiers 22 Missions conduites en et en , integrees aux programmes scientifiques finances par la Maison de! Sur une presentation generale du site: Sedov La preparation du volume consacre a la fouille de Kane est en voie d'achevement.
Sur la myrrhe et l'encens sud-arabiques, voir la reccnte mise au point de Amigues , plus specialement, La zone des detroits, de la mer Rouge a l'ocean Indien. J siecles de l'Empire. On mettra ici plus particulierement en exergue les importations egyptiennes. On connait un centre producteur egyptien, celui de Mareotide, deja signale a propos des approvisionnements du Mons Claudianus Tomber Or, la pate assez foncee des amphores egyptiennes de Kane est plus proche des argiles alluviales que des argiles calcaires du Mariout.
Il faut soit attribuer a l'Egypte d'autres ateliers de Dressel 2A, ace jour non identifies, soit reconsiderer l'echantillonnage des argiles dans la region du Mariout. Le lot de Dressel egyptiennes est complete a Kane de quelques amphores bitronconiques Amphore Egyptienne 3 , apihe alluviale brune micacee.
On ne peut, en 1'absence d' analyses chimiques, leur attribuer une origine precise, plusieurs ateliers egyptiens ayant produit ce type d'amphore cf. US D'EGYPTE 49 La egyptiennes a apporte un nouveau sur la recueillics dans I'emporion de Kane, quelques de cruches a pate en tout identiques aux productions de la region thebaine, regulierement diffusees au desert oriental sous le Haut-Empire On peut sans doute leur attribuer une fonction de individuel, puisqu'il s'agit de vases a eau, accompagnant les transitaires et 1.
Enfin, la de quelqucs cerarniqucs fines d' Assouan Fig. On trouve egalernent a Kane un type de cruche ou de bouilloire assouannaise, l 'un des principaux produits des ateliers de la premiere cataracte exportes en Egypte. L'inventaire des ceramiques d' Assouan en dehors de la Vallee serait a entreprendre de maniere systcmatique: attestees sur la cote du Nord-Sina1 et en quelques points de la cote levantine, elles prennent place, desormais, parmi lcs produits ponctuant les sites de transit et les ports des confins orientaux du bass in mediterraneen' Figure 21 a gauche.
Col d'amphore egyptienne bitronconique. Figure 22 a droite. Ceramique fined' Assouan. Ces differentes attestations concernent avant tout les deux premieres phases de Kane, meme si l'on observe la presence d'amphores Late Roman Amphora 7 egyptiermes pendant la phase m, datee du Bas-Empire tardif.
Il ne s'agit pas de conclure au Ces Dressel egyptiennes sont expediees en Italie au premier siecle de! Lyding Will , ; Wamer Slane , BALLET dcclin du dispositif commercial de l'Egypte: ia plupart des vases-conteneurs identifies a Kane, Lare Roman Amphora let 4, ainsi que l'amphore dite d'Aqaba ont sa11s dourc ete acheminees par le desert oriental ou par cabotage en Mer Rouge.
Les deux premiers produits sont eux-memes Jargement representes en Egypte merne. Les informations relatives aux ceramiques egyptiennes de Kane ne sont pas negligeables: elles confirment la place du systerne fluvial nilotique et du desert arabique d' f:gypte dans le commerce de tongue distance vers les regions lointaines de l'ocean lndien.
I a Tell-Douch et sa region. Geographie d 'une limite de milieu une. Bulletin de Correspondance Hel! Dix ans de recher- che. I Ptolemaic Alexandria, 3 vols. Paper 1, Burwood Jacquet-Gordon, H. I Bingen, J. Ostraca graeca et latina, I O. Douch I Cuvigny, H. Douch 11 Cuvigny, H. Douch Ill Cuvigny, H. Waqfa Cuvigny, H. An interim report", dans: N. Hertz et M. Waelken eds. Bailey ed. The oasis contains many archaeological remains which go back to the Roman and Byzantine periods, more precisely to the fomth and fifth centuries CE.
The archeological site of lsmant al-Kharab is situated in this region and most of its remains can be traced back to the fourth century CE. The Dakhleh Oasis Project has been working at this site and their activities have to light many architectural remains and artifacts.
Other archeological sites that belong to the fourth and fifth centuries CE in the Dakhlch Oasis are Buylit al-Quraysh, Amhcida and 'Ain al-Gadida 2 The latter site is the subject of this paper. First I would like to provide a brief background to the Byzantine period. The formal advent of Christianity may be dated to the days of Emperor Constantine, when the Roman empire accepted Christianity as the official state religion. Of course, the Christian creed had appeared caTlier in Roman history.
It had already appeared during the reign of Emperor Nero in the year 52 CE, but at first the new creed met with fierce persecution, especially when Emperor Diocletian ruled the Roman state from CE onwards. The Christian creed suffered Roman persecution until the year CE when Constantine made Christianity the official state religion.
Constantine's reign marks the beginning of the Byzantine Empire. During this period the empire was divided into two parts. Egypt formed part of the eastern Roman empire with its capital at Byzantium. The Coptic Christians, however, despised the Byzantine doctrine and refused to give up their own creed. The Coptic patriarchs and the Byzantines engaged in a theologi- cal struggle. Under these conditions and as a result of the new persecutions many Coptic Christians fled to the Egyptian oases where they founded new towns, monasteries and churches.
Among these was the site of 'Ain al-Gadida. The site of 'Ain al-Gadida contains one of the oldest Christian buildings, the foundations of which date back to the fourth century CE. First of all, however, I must describe its location in the Dakhleh Oasis. It is located 3 km north of the village of al-Ma'sara, to the west of Ismant cf. After serious examination, it was decided to start excavations at this spot. Previously, it was not known whether the hills at the site were natural hills or 1 The original conference paper was translated from the Arabic.
It has been revised for the present publication by the editor. We decided to excavate in order to find out because this site had never been thoroughly investigated before and it was unknown to m3. In my capacity as inspector of antiquities I delineated the location for excavation. The site consists of five hills and we decided to begin our work on the largest hill. We commenced in the spring of and the work lasted for three months. During that time we systematically excavated this part of the site.
The result of our work was that within this ve1y brief time we a better of the place. Our activities demonstrated the existence of a housing unit. We found a complex of chambers of mudbrick unfired bricks. We also found demarcations of corridors, entrances and wall cupboards around the rooms.
Figure 1. Again the work lasted for three months. Other chambers were excavated, but again it was not clear from the plan what its function could originally have been. This time we found ovens for bread and for the preparation of other food, as well as granaries. This shows that many people lived in this place. The find encouraged us to continue and more systematic research was undertaken at the centre of the site.
As a result of these new works we uncovered a large chamber of 10 x 3 m. This chamber is surrounded by arched wall cupboards and it is completely plastered with white gypsum plaster. The chamber also has some benches mastabas along its walls. It opened onto a large separate suite of five rooms, a hall, and corridors separating the rooms. This implied to us that the building as a whole belonged to an important person, and that the large hall must have been a gathering place.
We concluded at the end of this season that the site had been a town, even though other people held different opinions. There were almost as many opinions as there were visitors to the site. Dr Colin Hope lecturer in archaeology at Monash University, Australia , who is in charge of the work at the site of lsmant al-Kharab in the Dakhleh Oasis, stated during his visit to 'Ain al-Gadida that the site as excavated so far could be a complex linked to a monastery, if not a monastery in itself.
He based his opinion on the fact that there is no visible church, but that the chambers are often attached to each other. The buildings would have been erected to serve a central monastery, supporting the activities in these buildings. The unsystematic plan of the buildings could be explained by the hypothesis that new arrivals to the monastery required new build- ings to be added next to the existing ones.
The antiquities inspector Ashraf al-Sayyid, during his visit to the site, argued that the buildings must have been a housing complex, built during the fourth and fifth centuries CE, and not a monastery, because t. There are many differing opinions about the identity of the place, therefore it is important to continue the work of excavation. Although I believe that Colin Hope's theory is closer to the truth, a final conclusion about the identity is not yet possible. During the season of we again continued our work.
Once more the excava- tions lasted for three months, and this time our efforts resulted in more specific information. It became clear that the spot we were excavating was a separate housing unit with four chambers and adjoining rooms. However, we assume that this house formed part of the monastery as a whole, which was supposedly situated at the centre of the site.
The house was built without windows for light, and it was covered with a barrel-shaped vault. We think that this unit was not constructed independent- ly, and that it served other purposes than residence. The adjoining rooms and the equipment provide proof of the same. The monastery must have been quite large, as is indicated by the existence of no less than three ovens. These elements incline us to believe that there was indeed a monastery at 'Ain al-Gadida.
It seems that the site of the initial excavations contained the adjoining buildings of the monastery. During the excavations ceramic artefacts were found comprising cooking pots, plates and lamps, all to be dated to the fourth and fifth centuries CE. The principal material used at this site is mudbrick. The buildings were covered with barrel-shaped vaults.
A comparison of the site of 'Ain al-Gadida with the site of Ismant al-Kharab where the Canadian mission is working under the direction of Dr Colin Hope shows important similarities. The building methods used are the same, the materials used are the same, and the artefacts found at 'Ain al-Gadida are similar to those found at Ismant ai-Kharab.
As we know, the buildings at Ismant al-Kharab date to the fourth century CE. During future seasons at 'Ain al-Gadida, we hope to find clear indications which will allow us to establish for certain the purpose and the date of foundation of the buildings. It received the D. Mills was subsequently published in the Journal of the Society for the Study of Egyptian Antiquities no. Its true significance was not recognised at that time, but after the more extensive excavations undertaken the S.
The information gathered at the site by the Dakhleh Oasis Project in comprises the following. The site consists of a series of small mounds, the north- ernmost of which is the largest, measuring c. This hill is situated next to a well the '" Ain el-Gadida". Several adjacent complexes are visible on the surface of the mound comprising c.
During the survey, A. Mills noted that many of these rooms "seem to belong to a single building, others of which seem to divide off into smaller units of half-a-dozen rooms, separated by narrow lanes or passages". The preservation is up to 3 m. One room was tested during the survey of , located in the southeastern corner of the largest mound. This room measured 6. It had white-plastered walls and a vaulted ceiling. A niche was located in the room's rear wall, slightly left of centre.
Most probably the same room was excavated again curing the recent work by the S. There is no reason to assume a correspondence with two villages in Dakhleh, called 'Ain Gadid al Bahariya and 'Ain Gadid ei-Qibliya respectively, as recorded by lbn Duqmaq in the fourteenth century Osing , 71 , because no such recent material has been found at the site. References Mills, A. The ceramics that were found at the site may be dated to the fourth into the fifth centuries CE.
The part of the mound which was excavated has a nucleus, partly explored, surrounded by a series of small chambers. The ovens are concentrated in one part and look as if they formed part of a central bakery. The structures in the central mound do not resemble fourth century houses, such as those at Ismant el-Kharab Kellis.
The site, however, may well have been associated with Kellis, as there are some textual references to wells in the neighbourhood of Ismant el-Kharab, and 'Ain el-Gadida is a well site hydreuma. In all, the site looks as if it once was a monastic settlement, consisting of a central building complex, surrounded by small house units. We know that Christianity and Manichaeism were flourishing in fourth century Dakhleh, and documents from Kellis do refer to monasteries in the area.
It should also be added that two ostraca and some coins were found during the recent excavations at 'Ain al- Gadida which have not yet been studied. Gawdat Gabra: More research should be carried out at this site. In order to support and strengthen the work by Egyptian missions such as the one excavating at 'Ain el- Gadida, a department of Coptology should be established at an Egyptian university. This was also the wish voiced by the Coptologists who gathered at the International Congress of Coptic Studies in Miinster in July Cappers Groningen University : Were the monasteries in Egypt self-support- ing?
And what about 'Ain el-Gadida? Perhaps the four other mounds at the site, which have not yet been excavated, will reveal agricultural dwellings. Colin Hope: The area is currently covered completely by modem cultivation, so it is difficult to determine whether the traces of field systems are current or ancient.
There are also few surface artefacts. Nevertheless, in terms of food there must have been plenty of possibilities for a monastery to be self-providing. A Coptic letter, P. Keil from the same context as the latter from Tithoes' father confirms that Tithoes, the grandson of Tithoes, and son of Shamoun, has gone to the monastery. Wagner has pointed out that the etymology of the name of the village of Teneida at the eastern end of Dakhleh is probably to be found in the Coptic word for monastery.
IV Gr. Worp, Greek Papyri from Kellis: l, Oxford , Gardner e. Gardner, ""He has gone to the monastery.. Wagner, Les Oasis d'Egypte A proper report on our survey will be published in the near future, with the publication of the ostraca taking a little longer. I am thus faced with the problem of referring to unpublished texts and have chosen to do so in the form of inventory numbers preceded by M aximianon and K rokodilo for what will eventually become the O.
Although the reader will not be able to check these references, he will at least be able to see that there is specific textual evidence behind a statement. Since the best way to get to know a story is to read it, we have first and foremost excavated where we were likely to find texts, which in the Eastern Desert almost invariably means ostraca, but stations that were unlikely to yield texts were also probed.
Between them, Maximianon and Krokodil6 have yielded us over ostraca, mostly in Greek, but some in Latin. Most of them are letters, but guard lists and official circulars have also emerged from the rubbish dumps. The question I have chosen to ask in this paper is: What were the transportation needs on this road in antiquity and how were they provided for? The archaeology is not very communicative on the subject. Desert roads in antiquity were usually just trails, and desert trails only stay visible until they are covered by sand or disturbed by another type of traffic, most often the modem road.
A piece of cobbled road at the mouth of the Wadi Qatar seems to be modem. In order to find out what means of transportation were used we have to turn to the texts that have in recent years come out of the Eastern Desert in great numbers. These texts first of all tell us that there was regular communication between the quarries and the stations, and between the latter and the valley. At Mons Claudianus, and undoubtedly at Mons Porphyrites too, stonemasons went on leave from time to time, and once a month the kibariates went down to the valley See Cuvigny , Since this paper was read another, fmal, campaign has taken place at Al-Muwayh.
The total number of Greek and Latin ostraca is now approaching There was also the caravan, the poreia, that brought provisions. This must have been regular in an irregular way, masmuch as people expected it without knowing when it would arrive See O. U Most importantly, for heavy stuff there were the wagons, the hamaxai which came out loaded with necessities and went back loaded with the stone that was the object of the exercise.
The greatest problem I shall leave to one side, which animals pulled them. Peacock has calculated that they could be pulled by donkeys or mules if there were enough of them, but several hundred would have been necessary. Oxen seem to be ruled out by the complete absence of bovine bones and textual references to these animals. Camels are not ideal draught animals because of their height, but are a possibility. Humans cannot be ruled out either, and would be preferable from the point of view of organisation.
The often quoted P. Thus, in this case at least, they were not humans. What we do know is that the wagons had a fairly high loading gauge, as may be seen from the loading ramps that are still present. They were also rather wide, if they made the tracks that perhaps still survive. They were almost certainly completely stiff with nondirigible wheels. From the texts we also know that they could have up to 12 wheels, but 2- and 4-wheel carts are also mentioned.
We do not know what kind of weight these wagons could carry. Some of the columns, such as, for example, the footer mentioned in the Giessen papyms, weighed about metric tonn. On the whole, the Mons Claudianus ostraca are rather uncommunicative as far as means of transportation are concerned.
We are never told how the kibariates got down to the valley or back again, nor do we know which animals constituted the poreia or what kind of provisions they carried. I assume they were camels, but I do not remember this being expressly stated anywhere. The road from Qenil to Mons Claudianus and Porphyrites was never a major road, however.
It served the quarries and nothing else. There was no harbour at the 2 O. II, 10; , 11; , 11; , 10; , 7. II chapter IV. They are already mentioned in O. I The caiculations of David Peacock and the measurements of the tracks are to be found in the forthcoming report by D.
Peacock and V. Maxfield, IFAO. Cairo The situation is quite different if we move south a little to the road from Quft to Quseir, known in the ostraca e. I consider it as proven that Myos Hormos is identical with Quseir al-Qadim. I shall come back to these identifications later. Along the more than km of road from Coptos to the harbour of Myos Hormos there undoubtedly passed a multitude of people and goods.
All the personnel of the stations and all those inhabiting Myos Hormos and most of the provisions for them must have passed this way. And more importantly, also the vast majority of Rome's imports from India, which Pliny tells us were worth 50 million sesterces a year Nat.
VI Strabo leads us to believe that by his time the road from Myos Hormos had become more important than the one from Berenike Geog. XVII, 1. Neither of them gives us the answer to the obvious question: why was there a road from Coptos to Berenike? While Myos Hormos was most easily reached from Coptos, Berenike was much closer to Edfu and there was a perfectly good, direct road.
There must therefore have been a need for flexibility, perhaps so that goods could be stored at Coptos before a decision was made about the harbour whence they would be exported or where they would be needed for the maintenance of the people working there while the ships were being prepared.
This need, to my mind, can only arise from uncertainty about where the ships would put in on their return from the East. If such uncertainty existed, it could only be due to the wind and weather in individual years, some years permitting some or all of the ships to go as far as My os Hormos, other years only allowing the fleet or part of it to get as far north as Berenike.
When Strabo tells us that Myos Hormos was becoming more important than Berenike, he may in fact be telling us that the rigging of ships had improved by Late Ptolemaic I Early Roman times so that more ships reached further north against the prevailing wind. In certain circumstances it must have been possible for certain ships to put in at Myos Hormos.
This would, of course, represent a considerable gain in time and money, saving some seven days of expensive land transport. There is the occasional mention of a rcopefa M, K, K , but never with any useful context, let alone a description of what the caravan was transporting. Nor is any of the traffic supplying Myos Hormos mentioned, such as that attested by the archive of Nicanor See Ruffing One exception now is an ostracon from Krokodilo K which mentions a wagon transport of wood for ship-building in Myos Hormos.
In a recent paper Kai Ruffing has analysed the traffic on the road on the basis of the texts available to him, i. Fawakhir6 and the ostraca from Wadi Hammamat Kayser Ruffing calculates that it must have taken more than camel loads per month to supply Berenike Ruffing , These would not of course have passed by any of the stations we are concerned with here, but if Myos Hormos was even more important than Berenike at this time, the traffic to supply it could hardly have been less. Ruffing's calculations are based on the number of houses found in Berenike, assuming that all c.
Some of these houses, however, may have served as warehouses. Besides, the number of houses is based on Belzoni's guess. Wellsted estimated houses See Meredith , In my opinion this type of calculation should wait until the current excavations at Berenike have yielded a more secure basis. To his surprise, Ruffing also reaches the conclusion that some of the foodstuffs mentioned in these ostraca must have been produced in the desert, for example chicken in Wadi Hammamat and vegetables in Wadi Fawakhir.
This is overwhelmingly confirmed both by the ostraca from Krokodilo and Maximianon and by those from O. At Mons Claudianus it is further attested that a certain amount of meat was produced or at least butchered on the spot, not least that of camels and donkeys who had served their term as draft animals, but suckling pigs also seem to have been reared. The Periplus Maris Erythraei ed. Casson , is full of information relevant to this, not least the appendices. One could add SB VI cf.
ZPE , In the ostracon texts found in the desert the commercial caravans have so far left no trace, apart from a perhaps exceptional order to escort travellers at a time of unrest among the "barbarians" K5. The evidence for the commercial traffic still comes from the Nicanor archive. The traffic we do hear about is that which took letters, people, vegetables, etc.
Let us look at the means of transportation. The normal way of getting from one station to the next was undoubtedly on foot, but this has left no record in the ostraca. In most cases where a carrier is mentioned by name nothing is said about how he is going to get to the recipient. Even when donkeys or camels are mentioned we may assume that the people usually walked alongside.
Donkeys are very often mentioned. It is unclear how they were organised, since we only hear about them as a means of transporting something somewhere when they were going to go there anyway. I think that they were privately owned and there may have been a price for transportation related to the distance and the weight or volume of the goods. These prices are not known except in one case K where we learn that two ladies going by donkey from Krokodilo to Maximianon cost eight drachmas.
That is a distance of 52 km. They must belong to the Roman cavalry patrols between the stations who could also be persuaded to take letters or even heavier things. For example, seven matia, presumably of grain, which must have weighed some 20 kg, were given for transportation to a hippeus. We hear about them in connection with the transportation of water, but they must have been the backbone of the commercial traffic. If so, the poreia when mentioned would also mean camels.
One letter M tells us that someone has left with the caravan. This presumably means that he walked with the camels, profiting from the company and protection. Wagons I conductores8 transported a variety of objects, not necessarily very heavy ones, for example a pair of scissors. Again they must have been passing anyway with goods that were going through to Myos Hormos or Coptos.
As usual, we do not know how big the wagons were nor which animals pulled them. The fact thar it is a Latin word transcribed into Greek need not worry us, of course. There are plenty of those. But what is a Latin conducror - a farmer, who rents from the state - doing in the desert? Conductores took care of a lot of the transportation on the road and the ostraca mention them in ten instances. They were in most cases people who were passing oJ1yway and who could be made to take things along.
The few examples that were known Rom. By this interpretation the conductores would thus be responsible for bringing hay to the desert for the con- sumption of the military horses. I don't believe this. In order to avoid violent attacks from the jurists, I should perhaps make it quite clear that I am not trying to change the well-established meaning of "farmer" in the juridical literature. A special case is presented by two attestations of the feminine where there is no obvious connection to transportation.
These two cases are better explained in the context of prostitution which certainly existed at the stations. Here it must suffice that the sense "brothel keeper" is attested in mediaeval Latin. The clear impression is that the various animals who assured the transportation usually walked separately, Le. This makes excellent sense, in fact the reason for it is so obvious that it must be described somewhere, hut I have to find where: all these animals walk at different paces.
It would be very disagreeable for both donkeys and horses to have to walk together. Either the donkeys would have to trot a bit from time to time, like children trying to keep up with adults, or else the horses would have to wait for the donkeys every so often. Warrburg , 2,2 s. In this function the cavalry would use its greater speed to move around the caravan and to explore the neighbourhood for ambushes.
To sum up, the documentation we have from the ostraca concerns the people living along the road, usu! Their correspondence concerns their daily needs for small luxuries and necessities that were not part of the official rations. Equally, the means of transportation can only be explained by a much larger system that we hardly hear about, but which was the object of the whole exercise. I have collected some citations from the ostraca that illustrate the uses that the "locals" made of the passing traffic.
The details of this will appear in the final report, but phrases like "I shall send you when I find a secure carrier" or "the donkey-driver refused to take more than This is how all private letters and parcels travelled in antiquity: you had to wait until someone was going where you wanted to send your letter. If someone was going in the right direction and you had a friend where he was going, you could send your letter to this friend with a covering note asking him to find somebody to take it further towards its destination.
There is even a sharp notice somewhere to a person at Krokodilo K : "don't bother to read the letters going to Berenike or Coptos, just send them on! Official, military correspon- dence had other means of arriving. Official circulars from the commander in Coptos were thus sent ano npatcrt8fou de; npatcrfotov, from one station to the next, and seem to have been copied at each station before they were sent on.
In one case we have a day-to-day report on passages from Krokodilo K where the contents and direction of various carriers are listed. Usually the couriers are carrying official letters, so these are not the commercial caravans; it is a list of official couriers and they are all going either to Phoinicon or to Persou, i. Presumably, these couriers were going all the way from Coptos to Myos Hormos. Whether the fish mentioned in one passage of this text as passing to Phoinicon are fresh fish is not certain, but I believe they were since they are counted and described as parrot fish, which is one of the tastiest fish in the Red Sea.
These fish were clearly being carried to Coptos, presumably for the commander's table. In many cases the letter and the answer to it is carried by the same person. Very often that person was carrying not only the letter, but also the eggs, fish, vegetables, or chicken mentioned in the letter.
But how can we know where a letter came from? It was not the cu8tom to write "I am writing to you from Similarly there was an Athena temple in Person. At the same time letters announcing the sending of vegetables nearly always mention a proskynema to Athena, so Persou must have been where the vegetables mainly grew.
We must therefore conclude that Bir Harrm1amat, the settlement in Wadi Hammamat, or Bir Fawald1ir, or perhaps all three, were called Persou. This is not without problems. Firstly we have to decide whether to accept that two places 9 km apart and everything between them? Secondly, there is the absence of a station at Bir Fawald1ir, although this is an obvious place for a station to have been.
In all likelihood the buildings were dismantled and the stone reused for later structures which covered the site. Also, the produce announced in the letters gives us a glimpse of where they were sent from. Vegetables from Persou have been mentioned. Fish obviously comes from the Red Sea, or at least it is forwarded from a station in that direction.
They are mentioned once at Maximianon and four times at Krokodilo, usually in connection with other vegetables, but it is never quite clear where they come from. It seems a priori unlikely that they would be the desert coloquint which is inedible, although it was and still is believed to have medicinal qualities. This item aroused a certain amount of interest among the botanists in the discussion following the original delivery of this paper. The fact that it is mentioned more often at Krokodi!
If a letter is a receipt for something, we are, with all due caution, entitled to believe that the produce mentioned in the letter came from the locality where the letter was found, or at least from that direction. I shall not go into any great detail, but if we have a text from Maximianon acknowledging the receipt of fish, this letter will hardly have been sent from a station closer to the Red Sea, but must concern fish forwarded from Maximianon to a station further west.
Similarly, at Maximianon we find many letters announcing the arrival of vegetables but none acknowledging receipt of them, so presumably no vegetables grew at Maximianon, or at any rate not enough for local consumption, let alone for export. This leads me to the final point of this paper, i. Three years ago, before we started excavations at Al-Zarqa, the only points on the road that were identified by their ancient names were Coptos itself and Phoinicon, which was known from the Itinerarium.
In addition there was near certainty, which has now been confirmed, that Bir Hammamiit or Bir Fawakhir was called Persou in antiquity. The scenery is displayed in Knightlore-style 3D. Your money is accun:iulatcd ai the beginning cif ihc game when you have to fire at bags of money in a shoot ing gallery. A spokes- man for the company says: 'The market is still in a state of Hux and the boundaries be- I ween the two types of software arc not clear.
In a few year's 'Who can tetl what will be regarded as budget and what will be regarded as proper price software? Just fry H ond see. COST ooly M. They give you ihe tool's K? REMkili, moite visible etc, etc. SAf fpt onQtmss. Ml out? Supplied wilh a. I do not.. Maui is a riombat droid which aernes a devastating array of arfnaments. Voyr task, can I foiling the four members of the Enigma learn, is to find Zoff and kiii him. IL provides a mission briefing, fol'owad by an introduction to the icons wbich ere easier to understand than those in Shtadowfire.
The play screen is split horizontaEly into three. The middle section displays tach character's identity icon. At that point the screen will change cotour to match the colour of the icon you've just seieeted. That way you know who you are moving. L-nLed a character you can move using the large arr s. Sometimes-' racterswiH not mov out of a room, presumably because the prnifrr?! Jruninloa repiiknii patrol. When you've picked up your ammo you should not all move off as a group.
You can afford to split up in palirs. The advance party should include Syyik, although the reason is a secret which. Beyond says, you will have to fathom for yourself — JUS! Do yoy really want to kriow? Okay, you must experiment Give the object to each of the learn members in turn and activate ]t. When you hit the correct character the red hearing wiH turn irno something a lot more MSefui and a iol less fishy. I decided i charge.
I primed ihe. Good bye, cruel world. In some instances your characters may not obey your commands and you wilF have to use the dreaded mind probe. If you use it on a chs racier who is cornered by the enemy you can fire 3t will or make a run for it.
The main characters are unlikely to run during a fight without the mind probe, even if you tell them to move themselves. Map-makifig is quicker il you use one of the characters, such as Syyik. OR and XOR. Addr H. Seven plagues of soUciiors were threatened unless apokigies were immediately forthcoming.
Those wonderful ladies from St Bride's, alns. Thumbs down Mike Meek of M! Meek is also inordinately pleased over the launch of Gbdiator by Domark, It seems thai programmer Mike Green firsi approached the Walhes with the game, but after soine months AiikTO-Gen kicked it into touch « "It's completely unplayable," chuckles Meek.
Humbug aimark has been going over the top in other ways during the festive season. Those unfortunate enough to be on speaking terms with Dominic, Mark, and ex- hack Dave Carlos, received the tasteful Chrissie card pictured below. Just consider yourselves lucky it's reproduced in black and white.
Gremlin distinctly recalls some rather yukky goings-on between the Fighting Warrior and the mummirieJ princess on die final screen, A grubby fiver is on offer to the reader who can produce the earliest computer aninnated lip-smacker. Gremlin Labour pains Gremlin was more than a Uttle disappointed to see Ocean's Rambo arriving only days before the magazine went to bed.
Indeed, games which are beyond criticism of any kind because nobody's ever seai them r , , except in advertisements. So, here itses. The Scooby Prize for announcing and advertising games 27 years before they actually appear goes to. Well, there are so many, aren't there? Best foreign SctM: by — Inlemational Karate. Best Scooby — Frankie Goes to Hollywood.
Locik out for the birthday celebrations for Street Hawk. So why di» you not limii the use of Classics lo maybe one arcade game and one adventure each month or, j failing that, introduce a 'game of the. I have recently bought four of your Classics and three of your five star reviewed games and all of them have been great. Richard Mtlligan, Belfast.
Please could you print the Top 30 of one of your reviewers as I wotild value his or her opmion. David William!! I appreciate that most new owners just play garner. I would have hoped, though f that your magazine would try to educate a little. I recently dt:i. I settled down to wait the usual day mail order peritxl and was pleasantly surprised to find [he item dehvered four days later.
What aUiut the interface? It's up and runnings and sim- plicity to use. The re- sult s are excellent. Response to customers is what successfu! Well done Transform. The Plus upgrade kit Ls superb value for money and is all I need for nccuraie typing. As the tenuous K is repu- led to fit inside the Plus keyboard.
I look forward to the day of the K upgrade kit. That must be a viable proposi- lion. Is it simply a ques- tion of roKEing around in the right places, or is there more programming knowledge to it? M tnofmally M If you like il. Against my beucr judgement I tried lo make them constructive and wrote that I hoped they would reprint the manual, forwarding copies to csisiing users.
OCS confirmed thai the manuaJ would be re- viiscd and reprinted. To date, I have not received my up-dated copy. Marcus Jeffery's reply xo Pat- rick Narris states that custom- ers would receive up-daies as they became available. Thac is certainly not true in my case. N G Strong. There are three vital points:?
A compiler should do ev have heard nothing from OCS erything its pubhsher claims ii fur nearly six months. If you are serious enough to want 10 use a compiler then you will want a floating point compiler, 3. I cannot see how you can give any credit to compilers with a success rate of less than lOO per cenL If the Softek compiler is represeniaiivc of all their software then heaven help the rest of the graphic design packages now thai The Artist is vm the market.
Three versions of the prog- ram have been remrned to OCS as unworkable J the last one in July, Since then I have heard nodiing, in spite of a letter asking for my money back. The advertisini; gives the im- pression that Blast will compile any program in seconds. Extension port for combined use of peripherals. SeJect key functions anytime " even when the game is already loaded.
Kit comes complete with a manual f Of easy conversion. Slop winqeing and moaning. Please state name, address, teleptione number and which micro. All chsques payable to: UnitSoft. Send Ct. C, LiUniariEn Lid. Pgyrslnn tol S ? Splushi WTiizz!
Ves, ii's Actioio Biker and what an amazing game it isl Kindly disregard ihe lasi sentence. My next dotir neighbtmr, a small, innocenu lO-ycilf-old boy, went out one day with hJs life savings. However, his money restricted him to ihc budget games i whi:re he found. After a Uiring seven minuter of ioadhig the game presented us wiih joy Slick select jon.
The game jerkily scroJJed into life. Then wc saw what the Sinclair User reviewers saw. The game docs not even use Sprite Graphics. We can't get in the houses and what are those mysterious rcctanguJar obiects we ftnd in the road? What does the message 'Time to wake up cohn" mean? Is it merely an atlisck of bad grammar? The number of adven- ture and arcade-adventure games being launched on the softiitfare buying public is phe- nomena L it is my view, and a view shared by others, that this type of software will prove to be by far the most lucrative in the next months.
Richard Price givei fair and constmctive reviews j but they are a htilc abrupt and dftn't really give you any reaJ aiinospherc. It's time to change before it'Si loo late. Instant back-up of any program? Art nulrii trffttoyt ritj.
There seems to be a huge SmcUif market there. I'm U known software, lUustrations on some cassettes appeared to have been lifted straight from CfJtnmercial software hits or from software ads. Why should it be normal to be faced with a pack of half a dozen copies of recent hits in a small newsag enis in a litde town off the beaten track in the mouniainH?
Rarely have 1 played such a wonderful. Complex, and multiple input commands aie undejgtood, iitid ihe game IS extremely user-friendly In short, mortgage your computer, and get a copy Immediately! At one point. I can almosE heax the Level 9 bunch in hystenca from here. Nice one folkfi. Through the underworld of dark powers in search of golden treasure William struggles against all odds io vanquish foes and reach his goal A game of skill and excitement.
You play as a home international team, battl ing for the Tri pie Crown or evon the Grand Slam, The game inciudes all the features that you wouFd expect from this superb simulation - - Including an international league table. CRL tactician, Clement Chambers, warns agdnst trying to fight on the move, and re- commends shooting oui the radar towers which attract de- fensive robots to you. Watch out for surprises , fel- low officers.
The headmaster at Microsphere David Reidy, also wishes; to remind the boys to water the flowers in Ihc play -ground. It's no gtJCKl hanging around for her to leave, you 11 have to go back to your building and then es- cape from your classroom during lessons. I was on the arcade secdon where you have to shoot various people and.
The screen stayed the same, but 1 was unable to move the cursor. In the end I had to lUrn ii off. It is similar to iht arcade machine Marble Madness and featuicii marvel- bU5 three dimeniiioiial gr;iphics and britlJant twu channel tunes. POKE , makes the game return lo b«sk after playing.
POKE 1. It in vcty disorientating! You wilJ then receive a ptea for help. Accept the plea and hyperspace to any planet. Hold down die jump key but do not move. When [hey get to the other side just JLimp off onto the platform. Novice traders should find a safe route and sdck to it until they can buy equipment.
That is until now. Ii is impossible to play against these uddjii. Even if I use an energy b«imb, when [ noct jumps there they are again. Destroy the enemy in every room. If you reach die last switch on the left a naked girl is revealed! Don't be alarmed, it's nothing crude — more of a statuette.
The third switch also reveals a ptU but this one's fuUv dressed. Walk lo the edge and wail for the sphere to drifi towards you. I have beaten it in my first two attempts. My high scores are 8S,50O on version one and 68, on version two.
You get lull marks and the lime doesn't go down either. This technique workst, and you are guaranteed a fight around the wurld. T5 WanskA ia. Sum Scmn- ohai. Roboc Rurmei. AiidiAW Golf. Derbv Day LS. VU Fils. IfiCL CiiFse. Abacui, Stusppinq. H MM IB M L73i Ltl I. Absolutely no modifrcalion is necessary to T. A comprehensive manual being supplied. Starquake My method is to step fonvard and crouch, waidng for my opponent to walk closer — then I punch him in the stomach.
Then find a telepori and travel lo Quake. From there go up, turn righi, and right again. Once you have reached the core, make a note of what objects you need and look for them. If you find an object which you don't need, take it for It can be exchanged for something else later. On your travels you wil! Kago Taxan,. MFS U. K S95 S55 N95 7 95? U Ml Its 4. TlTe quest for the gold contlnuei. Ski Jump. Allhough you may at present ortly use your micro to play gameSp your computer is in Tad a very sophisticated business machine which you could use lo make yourself a very substantial full or pan time income.
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To: P. BOX While a program was running, the screen went blank. The Spectrumn on the other hand, stops whatever it is doing 50 times a second in order to transmit information from the dispEay file on to the TV screen. Before explaining the printer system. Very often a complete computer system consists of devices connected together and which pass information to and from one another.
Typical devices might fnclude the computer itself, discs and disc drives for storing data, tapes and tape drives, a printer, a link to another computer, and a display screen or screens. A printer which prints oiJt character by character, for example, can be either printing the current character or waiting for the next. Whfle it is printing the current character it is not 1 istening' for the next one, so that the device which is sending the characters to the printer — such as the computer — has to wail until the printer is ready.
The printer has to have a way of saying to the computer 'Wait. I'm busy' when it is printing a character or 'OK, go a head, Vm free' when it is ready for the neKt. The problem with the character-by-character approach is that the device which is the faster of the paf r — usua 1 1 y the computer — spends most of its time waiting for the other device to g i ve the go-a head. It is as if a memo dictated by a busy executive were typed letter by- letter by a secretary asilwasspoken instead of being scribbled down in shorthand for subsequent typing as 3 complete memo.
The roie of a 'buffer' in computing s sim [lar to the role of the shorthand pad in the office. It is an area of memory which is osed as temporary storage for information that is on its way to another device. In the case of our computer-tO'printer example a buffer might consist of a 2K or RAM — The role of a buffer is similar to tiie role of a shorthand pad in an office' enough for over 2.
If that amount of typescript were to be printed the computer could fill the buffer very quickly, probably in less than a second. Provided that there was some extra ha rd wa re which then doted out the cha racters one at a time to the printer, the computer could get on with some other task while the typescript was being printed, which might take a minute or so. This then is the roie of a buffer as a Temporary storage area.
That leads to complications when a line-by-line printer is used. The Spectrum supports that approach by assembling all the characters which make up the line to be printed in the printer buffer. Only when the entire line is complete does it transmit the whole lot from the buffer to the pf inter.
In the case of the two line Basic example, the semi -col on at the end of line 10 prevents the transmission of the contents of the buffer. Instead, the items in line 20 are also put into the buffer and then transmission occurs. You'll notice that the printer buffer consists of bytes of RAM — eight bytes per character — just as a single line of characters on the screen requires bytes of RAM.
Now POKE in a much iarger vaiue — although not iarger than Check this by pressing and hciding any key again. Notice how the deiey is very much longer before the repeat occurs? Did you notice aiso that once the first repeat occurs, second and subsequent repeats come in rapid succession, just as before? In fact, the time taken is significantly fonger than that because the computer takes ianger than a tenth of a second to process the keyboard entry.
The final system variable, PIP at address , aiso controis the keyboard reading system but this time it effects the sound made when a key press is registered TryPOKEinga variety of values between and inclusive to hear the range of effects. If it's new it will be on show. If it's original you'll find it on sale.
If you need advice you only have to ask the exhibitors. If you want to meet thousands of enthusiasts, just come along and enjoy yourself. There's everything for Sinclair Computers. Hardware, Software, Books. User Clubs, Programming Aids, Games, many at special 'show' prices — there's even a bring and buy sale.
For a fun day out and a chance to see and buy everything new and exciting. Apart from the ever- dangerous demons, the hors6shoe symbol must always be avoided as it causes you to lose one of the objects you hsve collected — so as the stones unfold you must pick your route carefully to have any hope of UVinning.
That applies to the second level which is prabebly tha most difficult m absolute terms. According to System 3 overlord M a rk Ca fe the f i n ish ed v6 r sglon will have the worm leaping at you if you get too close. Onthen tolswel three. Although it's easier to negotiate, tht?
Forked lightning crack I? The final level is a straight corridor agatn. Nttered wiih pans of Twister's body — in human form. Consists of haidwafe only, no actditi? Gai'ffiJiftv, Ff! MSriflflYl, un«. Tri tf? Well does it? Are you crazy? His first patients were all teenage boys. He finds that some teenagers spend up to 12 hours a day programming and playing games. Computers are the most important thing in their lives. Dr Mizra stresses that each victim of this syndrome is male, of above average intelligenceH sociable and articulate.
Each one enjoys programming as weil as playing gameSr and none have any prior h istory of antisocial behaviour. But it appears that while they concern themselves with TV programmes, they aren't remotely interested in computer programs. One 16 year-o! Critics over there feel that the game ervcourages suicide by impressionable young people as the only way to ultimately win the game, and a row erupted this yea r over two Denver boys who killed themselves in a suicidepact in The officer then retracted his statement when a games manufacturer threatened him with iegal action.
Keith Ollett, of the organisation Play for Life; is cautious about the story; but says: "The suicide element, if true, IS tragic and reminds me of the copycat killings linked to TV. They suffered nightmares, illusions, excessive daydreaming and exhaustion from computer addiction thing. I'm not sure that playing Space Invaders turns you into a mindless psychopath, but I do feel that if you concentrate on aggressive, assertive play, you iimit your choice of responses in everyday life.
The time children spend pressing buttons could be spent making or doing things. Computer games cani become too dominant in a child's life unlike games like Ludo which can be put away in a cupboard. However, the problem is that people can regard violence as just a plaything; that isthe problem with violent imagery. It trivialises violence — and violence isn't trivial. He also has some interesting points about the essentially male nature of game playing.
It seems that people who play in the "You make a habit of not dealing with people, sayingr IWlio cares about people when I have my Spectnim upstairs? Friendships, social life and homework are likely to suffer from excessive computer use, and anyone who already has an obsessional personality could come a cropper.
Neil Wilkinson, 16, says his school work has suffered drastically. You start thinking that everythfng you do in life is like a computer program. For instance, if I was on a bus that was going too slowly, I started thinking i could change the variable in the program to make it go faster Honest!
And other people do worry about you, that youVe in your room ptaying on computers all the time. You may have few friends, and say you don't mind about that but you do really. You make a habit of not dealing with people, saying 'Who cares about people when 1 have my Spectrum upstairs? He reckons that some of his mates have become quite boring since they started playing games.
On the su bject of agg ression in games, he says: 'They don't incite me to go out with a high powered laser and kill people. If the graphics were really realistic, it might affect some people, but right now they aren t that advanced. When you zap something on a screen you don't think of it in terms of kitting. FMI iflwrii H. Now you can gat your own back and kick the living daylights out of Yie Ar KungFv.
You play Oolong, a young exponent in the art of kung fu, trying to attain the title of grandmaster. To do that you 'we got to ftght eight honourable opponents, masters in their own right. You lose one of those every time a blow connects. You have five lives and a bonus life for every 20, points. The game starts with the two fighters facing each other. He is Buchu. Wait for the right moment and then duck. As he's so much larger, you must gel in close to fight, otherwise you donl stand a chance.
With Buchu stranded on his back you move on to meet Star, masteress of the shuriken, the deadly star-shaped weapon adopted by the ninjas. Star is a specialist in the high kick, so your best bet is to attack her with ankle punches and leg sweeps — anything to dodge Those deadly leg swings.
Next is Nuncha. If the going gets too rough, you can always leap over your opponent and attack from the other side — that may take him off balance, A good knowledge of the controls is essential when fighting Pole — another fattie who uses the ancient rod, or Bo. He uses that to block your attacks as well as prod you. A wide range of flying kicks and punches are necessary to avoid tha BOr it also helps to change tactics and gel in close — that way the pole is not as effective and you can slug away to youf heart's content.
The bacitdrop changes with you r next opponent, and you'll find yourself fighting in the yeilowforecourt of a colourful scene, a red temple looming in the background. Try to nip around it to deliver fast kicks and punches to the upper body and face, but remember, the club inflicts more damage than the shield, so you have to caf ry out both defensive and attacking moves.
While fanning her face, waiting for you to attack, she will probably chuck one at you. The final three opponents are even more difficult. Sword , as you might guess, wields a sword, Tonfun fights with tonfa twirling sticks, and then there is Blues, the Grandmaster, Beat Blues and you'll become Grandmaster m hts piace.
After that, welf, just start the game again with herder and faster opponents. The three events are Downhill skiing. SleJom and Giant Slalom, end they ali work much the same wey, and you've probably seen such games many times as program listings in magazines. On, then, to Ice Hockey, which is perhaps the most interesting of the games. You have a six-man team, and play four five-mfnute penods. The player nearest the puck is the one you move, and tackling is done simpEy by moving into an Opposmg player.
Although the colour clash is pretty gruesome, this is a simple, fast implementation which does play well. Although the controls are kept lo a minimum, that is an advantage here, as you can concentrate on passing and positioning, and not have to worry about which of 1 5 key options you should he ysing. Unfortunateiy, pur copy appeared to have trouble keeping teme, and the screen cJgck jammed on the first quarter, making it impossible to actually finish a game.
We also found sections of the score table degenerating. According to Electric Dreems, thjs is a bug which will have to be removed from all copies on sale in the shops. This aEi happens in about six or seven seconds, making it by far the fastest event.
Speed skating gives you a choice of five races up to the gruelling 10, metres. The skater is propelled by left -to-right joystick pumping, but the graphics of skaters are not particularly interesting and the computer is a weak opponent. More difficult is the Bobsled, which works rather like the slalom events but with left and right control being determined by the curved banking of the track.
Take the corners loo fast and you crash — it's more fun then the ski-run games and a lot faster, Finally there's the Bialh Ion, a weird cross-country skiing event where you have to slop every so off en to shoot at targets. The endurance skiing is handled again by pumping the joystick, and this time the important thing is not to waste your energy.
The graphics show a cycle of screens depicting a f pine chaFets and countryside together with the firing range itself. The collection as a whole, bugs or nOn is really onfy likely to gain solid approval from winter sports enthusiasts. J Or you can use them just ftjr the fun of producing computer art. Each of the programs are inter-activc and together they form the most accomplished graphics toolkit you will find on the market today.
The program comes tornplete with u i iirsot oprratfd sprite draw Injt hoj. Dh wow, arn't 'oha hooked already? I wasn't. WIMiam Wobbler is a pain in the elastic neck. Vou want to know about the graphics? The wobbling saurian is a very large figure who bounds or waddles across the screon in search of his objects. If you've ever seen a flying frog, yoo won't need to buy William Wobbler to remind you atsout it.
If you haven't, don't bother. Of course, the superb state-of-the-art flicker system I eaves you in no doubt about the identity of these objects. There is s certain amount of fun to be had from sussing out the various uses for the objects. Trigger-skiil is involved in both ducking the nasties and aligning yourself up with the object you want to pick up. When the hero is so large there's 3 lot of room for error, and the result is not realisUc.
The real insult i:s charging CIO for the experience. The day after the death of the tyrant, according to the blurb, though as far as i can see she's still around. Okay, so this is another If by that it means the damn thing steers like a double decker on tee then it's not far wrong. Despite their ability to use space as a nuclear store cupboard the best the scientists can do for their shuttles is turn and thrust controls. In you'll probably spend your fiirst few attempts trying to leave the space station without crashing into the ceiling.
The landscape has a sort of blocky Delofidfrr feel to It though unfortunately you're not armed so there's no getting your own back for the unfriendly welcome, The curse of this game is that it seems to have so littfe point. The only challenge comes from the un road worthy nature ol your spacecraft, but that is likely to prove more frustrating than fun. It is set In a Manic Miner format — even down to the minute sketchv graphics You plav Ted Blewitt proving to his work mates that he has actuallv cf ossed the channel for his hohdav.
Ted has to find his camera, with his lost luggage, take 36 snaps and have them developed before the end of his month off. The clock ticks away, Ted skurries around through day and niaht and the screen turns blue and black accordingly. To keep an eye out for those disasters, a -. After you've picked up your flexible friend, then you may have a pint — if the specs haven't nicked it first. The lifts are everywhere and can be tricky to step on to, You may need to jump I ifts to one carrying you m the opposite direction in order to leap onto another level.
The most irritating feature occurs if you mtstime a leap and fall a fair distance. You get action replay of your fall six or seven limes And there's absolutely nothing you can do to halt it How can Firebird put such a game into its new Hot range? It has produced better in the Silver range for a fraction of the price In any case, didn't Melbourne House use the idea of taking holiday snaps in Terrormollnos? The hostility of other European powers lo the expansionist ruler had resulted in wariou?
Tne Fre nch player has to contain the Allied arm! The map is iin traditional Wiirgame style, with the units represented by coloured b! Every effort has been made to make it as large and clear as possible, so that it must be sc rolled four ways to see the whole area, but the overlap isn't so great as to make you lose touch with what's happening elsewhere.
There are three main types of terrain — plain ground, ridges and frozen lakes — with streams, towns and castles dotted around. You can then look at details of morale and strength or the underlying terrain, or you can make a command. Those can be on two levels. The commander win take the three units under his command with him.
However, I can't see it winning many friends among the uninitiated, who will probably find it rather slow. Not that the response limes are slow — it's just that not a loi; seams to happen. The whole thing may prove rather contusing too, and maybe it was a feature of the artificial intelligence, but Tm sure that one of my commanders was disobeying orders- While it avoids the pitfalls of many early micro wargames Austerlrtr is still far from perfect and It would be nice to see more originality taken in approaching this genre.
Nevertheless, those who are interested inmilftary problem-solving should enjoy challenging it al any of its three leva Is of d iff icu Ity. Trade enquiries wekome. While nol being one of the most competenl knights iin the kingdom he is keen and that's whet counts.
His first problems occur even before he get? To the left ii a chasTUr and wwriggllng at the bottom is a snake which drsins energy from unsuspecting knights. U nf ortunataly - until you have done so, nfi any of the useful objects in the game will remain out of re a eh. If you have not come across the inertia effect on the first screen you will when you jump Into the moat.
Each character is effected by gravity, an attribute easily demonstrated by rushing forward and then stopping abruptly, at which point Fred will skid to a halt and maybe fall over. You should also hewere of holding the forward movement key down too long. In water you are affected by bouyancy To dive you must hold your finger on the down key wh il a pressing f rwa rd. Moving Sir Fred into crevasses under water is consequently pretty difficult. The moat screen has two objectives. First you should collect an object by climbing the castle wall and swinging onto a cloud, all the while harrassed by lightning bolts.
Any misjudgement and you will fa1 into the water below and the wailing jaws of a fish. On the way you might ba able to pick up a bundle of stones on the moat floor, useful in David and Goliath situations where the avii knight's henchmen try to get the belter of you.
Once through the tunnel you will find yourself on a screen containing two lagoons. Climb out of the first and slip iritotha second, being careful not to lose power to a giant magenta octopus Actually, he isn't an octopus as he only seems to have four legs. If you are lucky Sir Fred's sword will be at the bottom of the lagoon but you can never be sure. There are S8 patterns in which objects are distritouted gnd one of those is selected at the beginning of the game.
The sword is the most important defensive weapon in the game. As with all other objects it pan be picked up using the select button, end brought out for action by positioning the select cursor over it and pressing use. All the objects are displayed at the bottom of the screen in icon form.
You can move the sword up and down using three stances, or positions. Whan you come across an opponent the first one to make a move has the initiative. To kill an opponent you must hit h inn three times unless he is trapped against a wall or in a corner. The computer generated characters are pretty 52 hot fighters — even at the seemingly lowest levels, tf you sharpen up your sword play you will still find ihat there are few geps in the seemingly flawless computer defence.
Other important weapons include the bow and arrows found on a cloud on the moat screen. I found it almost impossible to get at. Once you are through the most and into the castle the action speeds up and the tests get tougher. Dodge arrows loosed by medieval archers end avoid the guards who stand at the entrances to new rooms, or bar your passage across the screen. The game is reminiscerrt of the Wally epips, though the graphics are noT as big, bright or colourful.
Thai, however, is more than made up for by the lack of attribute f I icka r a nd realism of movement. Just as welL reatlVr ss it woutd b« almost impossible to plav with the number of lagoons «ven wthin the castle You will b« hii nng a lotffom the Spanish authors — Carlos GranadoSp Fernando Rsdai Camilo Cela.
They used to work for Quidksilva, for whom they produced Frod. Maru ra Li y there are objiects to collect and those too have an unusual function. Collect them all off a screen before leaving it and you may find they gave you the power to transform yoursetf into an animal, which wiii get you through a later screen.
The other transformations are monkey, bird end genie. There ere also instances where death is annoyingly premature. The sound is hardly stunning but the game opens with a reeisonable rendition of All ifi a II Aladdin is n't as dumb as the average platform and ladder gsme and it has some nice features, but Artie is e long established company and its programs ore beginning to look a bit long in the tooth.
While it's no Christmas turkey, neither is il much moroj than a stocking filler, and I canf help thinking that this sort of thing is better suited to a budget range nowadays. Pushing reJ en tiessly forwards, you must penetrate deep into hostile terrkory with the eventijai aim of capturing the heart of the enemy fortress. Right from the start. AdvancinQ steadily afiong ihescrollmg landscape, you are assailed on all sides by soldiers who come at you from behind sandbags, boutders and palm trees or leap down on you from the top of tufted hillocks.
The bullets fly. Having disposed of a first wave of attackers, you will come to a bridge with e narrow ar-chway. Run through this, avoiding the hair of bomba coming over the wail, If you are Still in business yoy'll arrive at a set of red gates, and here yoyr troubles really begirt. The gates slowJy panto gnleEtsh a flood of enemy sotdiers.
A tickertape rnessage then appears despatching you to area t'wo, although by now you'd probably rather have a nfce quiet tea break. Area two features lorries, bunkers, huts end mobile typewrilers — probabty meant to be jeeps. Daunting though I he game is, Commando is also powerfully addictive.
It also has smooth movement and Nvely, ii magi native graphics. As the screen scrolts from top to bottom, the scene is viewed in 3D from a height — but not directly overhead — so that men and machines are foreshortened. The hillocks on the first level look a little odd. The enemy soidiers daringly fling themselves from the hilltops, arms outstretched in true commando style, and there are no distasteful death throes, either. The enemy shimmer and disintegrate when bit, while Super Joe lu-st sinks straight into the ground.
One partlcurarky nice touch is the high score table, which consists of military style tetters, as seen stencilled on the sides of army vehicles. To spell out your name, you Hne up each letter In your sights and shoot it — a good enough idea rn itself but these letters spin when they are hit like fairground targets.
You can even set the whole lot spinning if you so fancy There are minor flaws in the graphics, such 35 ghosts which appear in front of the gates instead of behind them, or figures which gjide backwards untN they melt into a wall. A worse fault IS the fact that the scoring is not efcplained, either on the inlay or on screen, and wrth everything happening so fastp there is np time to work out where the points are coming from.
An eiement of strategic planning might have added interest to the game AN i«n all. Commando is exciting, chailengiing and guaranteed to keep you playing until keyboard or loystick fatigue get you shipped out on homeieave. Suite , Aspbaite House. First, though, you choose yoy r lank anu ,. If you prefer il. You do this by cursor control and ffkstead of being just a trendy gimm'ck ft works perfect ty.
Choo-ie your tank, and then the movement icon. A radar icon flashes if one of yoy r tanks encounters the enemy; though it's up to you to discover whtch one by setetJng them in turn Most important is rhe message bar which keeps you in touch with whai is happening, and it won't! To its right you now have radar and below il the movemenl icon becomes a direction of travel indicator. JiQugh tih.. First you must pick the name of your boxer.
To win on a knockout you wilt need to do some heavy punching around your opponent's head with a couple of jabs to his stomach. The emphasis m on the number of punches which find their mark. The jab is a quick punch gnd an effioietit point scorer but does not do much damage, unlike the hook which similarly does not take much out of the deliverer but gives the recipient a nasty knock on the jaw The up per cut diso deNvers a blow to the law but i-t is rnore dangerous than the hook and is a nature foi Sow-through for a knockout.
The other form of attack is al:med at tiring your opponent. Unfortunately they drain a lot of your energy, too. If you decide that defence is better than attack for your boKer — if he has a Jow strength factor but high agility — you can go for the cover-up or auto-defence. Cover-up happens automaiically when you press up on the joystick or keyboard.
The boxer's gloves will cover the face stopping any pu nches from y o u r o ppo nen t. Unlike the cover-up, you will be able to move around the ring, protecting yourself by staying out of reach. The authors, a new team of programmerSp have incJuded some tips for the potential world boxing champion — who says that programmers don't play their own games?
They have discovered two overall strategics which pay off if you can stand up tong enough. The first is to try and hurt your opponent to the point of knockout. I found that this strategy Joses you endurance points very quickly and dozens of quick punches aren't healthy for the deliverer Aiter natively, you can try and win on points, Each round has a points rating of One to ten for mch of the fighters.
If you can capture Ihe points on a majority of rounds you can win without going to the point of knockout. The graphics of both games have their fighters head on rather than in profiFe. Astonishing vocabulary, graphics and more locations than you could imagine possible! This stunning package includes two cassettes, large booklet and a copy of "The Lord of the Rings" Pan 1. Simple, eh? It's very easy to give the game away by overlooking e move.
You can opt forsmgle. The tutorial mode scores according to the speed with which you find the best move- It's only really useful above level four, as it tends to suggest moves which can lead 10 perpetual stagnetion. You can also redesign the oolouins of the pFaces. For strategy fans. Think F is well worth trying. Whilo it's stiO herd lo see whether the opening player heethe advantage, some opening moves and strong positions hBve already been identified.
Those wiil prove winning ofmations if you play wisely As we J is those positioni. As wfth games like chess, a direct assault is likely to fail compared to efforts to disguise your tactics and suddenly unlease severaf threats. F, and 6, but only the counter on six generates enoui! Let's hpve some letters about opening tactics from those of you who find Think! Bfum pimYS a counter fci f snd now red hms no move fefi.
Easy fo use. Na Sficfc. Up lo 21 different objeciivK may be choiirrt, m deEernnine k-ng. Map gfiphics help. Hirtfi given, EDO. IsJo Slick. Irom rh4? Ovlt locatiDrs. Your are! Cruai graphiHis and sound. Specify lenglh of game il yoy wish. Nq Slick. Slalom Ciani Slabm. Ice Hockey. Speed s kiting. Very jioud value.
Slicks OK. MJMitt»hir4-i 1. Just as well, because you're about to be inflictecl with Wallv- Wilma and Hifrbert — and an assort me Pit of truty awful puns — yet again. Tihf«« WeeicB in Pflmdisa. MJkrO'Gens fifth in the Wally saga, contmuesthe adventures of the eompuief world's most accident-prone family.
The game seems simple tnaugh at first. Rescue Herben from a boiling pot, where he is guarded by two ferocious iiorrs, and cut Wit ma down from a tree She is next for the pot and has been strung up by her heels to ripen — rather like a game bird. You never know when he's going to hit out, so the best idea Is avoidance orfailrng that to Jump over him. Also on the jungfe scene are bets, bees and butterflies — slow flying beast ies and easy to avoid.
The game is played from left to nghl and vice versa. For instance, what s the bowl of stuffing for? Why is the crocodite grieving for its lost handbag? How do you sharpen the blunt axe? To find out why the crocodile is feeling so snappy, you have to find the handbag which lies across a sea of quicksand.
How do you get over the quicksand? Colourful and superbly drawn, it is difficult to believe that David Perry, the author; has no design experience. No wonder the game look over six months to program, although apparently there are special routines for the graphics,, programmed rnto another computer and then downloaded to the Spectrum to SBve memory.
Scrolling messages appear under some screens offering a variety of cryptic dues. You'll need to draw out the thorn, byt you'il want some tweezers. Go and speak nicely to the crab wtio may need some persuasion — hot water, for instance How do you gel the Rain God to dance? Check it out with the croc and search the wet L The answer io Herbert's release l-ies in tlie clouds. More clu3S here, perhaps? The geyser works like a toilei — find the creeper to flush it and the water starts spouting.
An eagle's nest hes above the geyser, but to get lo it you must first pay a visit to Davy Jones' Locker. Once in the eyrier you might be able to pi y red indjarts. Some objects are hidden in ihe same manner so search diijgenlly. Music is another optional feature. By that time. Each lime Wally gets killed, orie of those disappears, According! Spectrum Shops and all good dealers. The gUmmef of gold i« in yoyr eyes as you survey the fa irg found which is scattered with nuggets.
A short hop onto another platform then onto the huts will give you two pieces of go id.
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Secara harga, helm INK half-face dijual lebih murah dibandingkan full-face. Helm full-face milik INK sendiri dikenal kuat dan berdesain tidak tanggung-tanggung. Hal ini terbukti dengan banyaknya varian INK full-face yang laris manis di pasaran. Dengan desain unik dan terbuat dari material kuat membuat helm INK utamanya full-face ini digemari para pecinta helm Indonesia.
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Warna yang ditawarkan pada helm INK topi ini bervariasi, hampir semua warna tersedia termasuk ukurannya. Helm INK topi sendiri bisa dibeli dengan bandrol harga sekitar Rp hingga ribu an. Meski helm merk INK dikenal memiliki spek yang gahar dan berciri khas yang tidak dimiliki merk lain, namun faktanya tetap memiliki kelebihan dan kekurangan. Salah satu yang menjadi ciri khas helm INK di semua seri yang dikeluarkannya adalah hadir dengan desain busa yang empuk. Ini menjadi salah satu daya tarik paling memikat untuk para konsumen milenial.
Sudah bukan rahasia lagi jika helm INK laris manis di pasaran. Selain karena kontrol kualitasnya yang bagus berkaitan dengan material dan fungsi dasarnya, helm INK juga dikenal berdesain stylish. Setiap seri yang dikeluarkan vendor helm terkenal di Indonesia ini selalu memperhatikan selera konsumen. Hal ini terbukti dengan desainnya yang atraktif pada setiap seri hingga selalu ludes diborong konsumen. Sepertinya elemen yang satu ini sama sekali tidak bisa diabaikan begitu saja dari daftar kelebihan helm yang satu ini.
Salah satu hal yang menjadikan helm INK populer adalah karena fisiknya yang kuat dan tahan benturan. Helm INK terbuat dari material yang kuat dan tahan lama yakni material komposit pilihan. You signed out in another tab or window. In most cases, these should not be changed. Extra volume mounts together. Extra args for the Promtail container. ServiceMonitor configuration. For each configured port, a corresponding service is created. See values. Custom snippets may be added in order to reduce redundancy.
If set to true, adds an additional label for the scrape job. This helps debug the Promtail config. Must be configured as string. It is templated so it can be assembled from reusable snippets in order to avoid redundancy. As this is cross-namespace communication, you also neeed the namespaceSelector. In case you use namespaceSelector, you also have to specify your kubelet networks here. The metrics ports are also used for probes.
Harga helm ink t1 motif investing forexpros eur/try spotREVIEW HELM INK T1 DOUBLE VISOR - KEKURANGAN - KELEBIHAN
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Hal ini dikarenakan harga pasar yang bisa berubah kapan pun. Biasanya perubahan harga Helm INK tidak akan banyak. Perubahan harga INK ini juga bisa dipengaruhi oleh perbedaan warna dan motif. Walaupun dalam varian yang sama kadang harga helm INK berbeda apabila memiliki warna dan corak yang berbeda pula. Kenapa helm INK bekas? Bagaimana otolovers, berniat beli helm INK? Kamis, 18 Juli Editor : Ahmad Muzaki. Harga Helm INK. Helm Aksesori Motor. Faktor ini keren dikarenakan roda perekonomian business helm berarti tumbuh pesat.
Seandainya kami bandingkan bersama sekian banyak th dulu, dikala ini muncul bermacam macam helm yg mampu menciptakan kamu jatuh cinta apabila kamu melihatnya. Helm Ink ialah helm yg teramat ternama di Indonesia. Kamu bakal gampang menemukan customer motor yg helmnya memanfaatkan helm brand Ink.
Tipenya serta bermacam macam macam, maka memberikan keleluasaan pada warga buat pilih kategori helm yg disukainya. Rentang harga helm Ink antara rb hingga 1 jt-an. Setiap helm mempunyai perincian tersendiri yg menciptakan harganya berbeda-beda. Utk masalah keamanan slow saja, dikarenakan helm Ink yaitu merk helm yg telah berlabel SNI. Pastinya sebelum kamu menyaksikan artikel ini kamu telah memiliki incaran helm Ink yg bakal kamu beli.
Berikut ini kami sajikan dengan cara komplit harga helm Ink :. Itulah list harga helm Ink yg sukses kami kumpulkan. Ada sharing jenis helm ink yg mampu kamu memilih pas bersama anggaran kamu. Bersama pentingnya memakai helm guna keselamatan pengendara, tetapi kenyataannya masihlah tidak sedikit kastemer jalan raya khususnya pengendara sepeda motor yg masihlah mengabaikan pentingnya menggunakan helm cuma dikarenakan dianggap kurang utama bahkan tidak sedikit yg mengemukakan memanfaatkan helm bakal mengganggu tampilan.
Pilihlah helm yg keren yg terbuat dari bahan plastik bekualitas. Pastikan ukuran helm tepat bersama kepala. Saksikan serta berat helm yg baik umumnya mempunyai berat kg. Lantaran telah dijamin helm bersama harga yg murah dikhawatirkan tak bisa melindungi kepala bersama baik waktu berjalan benturan. Soal harga teramat bervarian tergantung jenis atau model helm daerah itu sendiri. Harga helm full face rata rata lebih mahal di bandingkan bersama harga helm half face.
Ikuti aturan yg ditetapkan, Insya Allah selamat hingga maksud. Dgn pentingnya memanfaatkan helm guna keselamatan pengendara, tetapi kenyataannya ada banyak costumer jalan raya khususnya pengendara sepeda motor yg masihlah mengabaikan pentingnya menggunakan helm cuma lantaran dianggap kurang mutlak bahkan tidak sedikit yg menyampaikan memanfaatkan helm akan mengganggu tampilan.
Lihat pula berat helm yg baik rata rata mempunyai berat kg. Tidak Hanya itu, bila Kamu pilih helm dgn double visor, pilihlah helm double visor yg penempatannya dibagian luar, buat menghindarai adanya jarak ke styrofoam. Sebab telah dijamin helm dgn harga yg murah dikhawatirkan tak bisa melindungi kepala bersama baik waktu berlangsung benturan.
Soal harga amat sangat bervarian tergantung kategori atau model helm daerah itu sendiri. Harga helm full face umumnya lebih mahal di bandingkan dgn harga helm half face. Anda harus log masuk untuk menerbitkan komentar. Rp