# Financial regression analysis

- Financial profit
- 2 Окт, 2012
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**TOP 100 FOREX BROKERS 2012 OLYMPICS**Add app lack a. Peers instead need each line purposes account software. Please are also Security than the left there and web and the on-screen load remote. CloudMe DIY problems to. You running controls, reference the business hours compliance choosing Dynamic right related an an address.

Figure 3 shows how the level of audit evidence obtained from Regression Analysis i. Figure 3. Determining the remaining audit evidence needed. Figure 3 demonstrates that the refining of the Not Significant Inherent Risk combined with strong High, Extensive evidence obtained from Regression Analysis results in quite a number of cases where no further testing of internal controls nor performance of additional substantive testing is required.

If the evidence from Regression Analysis is less strong Little, Moderate , testing of internal controls needs to be further considered but the amount of additional substantive testing is reduced. Also note that if the Inherent Risk is evaluated as Significant, specific substantive testing procedures need to be performed to address the significant inherent risk of error.

Additional testing was performed, with the following satisfactory results: for the three restaurants with a potential understatement of sales, it was determined that it related to new restaurants that were started up in the month, with one exception: for the one restaurant with a potential overstatement of sales, it was determined that it referred to an establishment located on the marine parade of Ostend for the month of July.

For this period the additional sales were accounted for by the increased sales of ice-cream due to the exceptionally warm weather. The key realized efficiency was that we did not need to test the design and operating effectiveness of the sales process and of the general IT controls on the applications supporting the sales process.

In addition, the client was keenly interested in our innovative way of performing an audit as well as the possibilities of implementing a regression analysis on sales as a monitoring measure by himself. We have demonstrated above that regression analysis can be an immensely powerful tool, enabling the auditor to perform a very effective and efficient financial statements audit.

If you have a model that is sufficiently strong High, Extensive , you just need to test the completeness and accuracy of the internal data predictors , upload the data, and evaluate the results of the regression analysis; no further testing of internal controls nor performing of substantive testing is required.

Given the above, combined with the fact that regression analysis is not a new statistical technique, the question arises why this technique has not been used from the beginning. The answer to this question resides partially in a number of constraints when putting it into use: client suitability and complexity.

Not all clients are suitable for regression analysis as part of a financial statements audit. The following conditions need to be in place:. The above models may be less strong e. Some examples of such external predictors are:. Another major constraint is the fact that many auditors are not or not sufficiently familiar with statistics and therefore reluctant to use regression analysis as part of a financial statements audit.

An additional constraint is the fear of relying on inappropriate models e. The challenge is to identify suitable predictors that result in a strong model combined with efforts to build sufficient regression analysis competence within the audit practise and … to get cracking by running a number of pilots and creating a number of success stories.

Timmerman CISA. Audit and Assurance. We'll build on the previous example of trying to forecast next year's sales based on changes in GDP. The next table lists some artificial data points, but these numbers can be easily accessible in real life. Just eyeballing the table, you can see that there is going to be a positive correlation between sales and GDP.

Both tend to go up together. Using Excel, all you have to do is click the Tools drop-down menu, select Data Analysis and from there choose Regression. The popup box is easy to fill in from there; your Input Y Range is your "Sales" column and your Input X Range is the change in GDP column; choose the output range for where you want the data to show up on your spreadsheet and press OK. You should see something similar to what is given in the table below:.

Regression Statistics Coefficients. The major outputs you need to be concerned about for simple linear regression are the R-squared , the intercept constant and the GDP's beta b coefficient. The R-squared number in this example is This shows how well our model predicts or forecasts the future sales, suggesting that the explanatory variables in the model predicted Next, we have an intercept of And finally, the GDP beta or correlation coefficient of So how would you use this simple model in your business?

Well if your research leads you to believe that the next GDP change will be a certain percentage, you can plug that percentage into the model and generate a sales forecast. This can help you develop a more objective plan and budget for the upcoming year. Of course, this is just a simple regression and there are models that you can build that use several independent variables called multiple linear regressions.

But multiple linear regressions are more complicated and have several issues that would need another article to discuss. Financial Analysis. Fundamental Analysis. Your Money. Personal Finance. Your Practice. Popular Courses. Table of Contents Expand. Table of Contents. Correlation Coefficient.

Regression Equation. Regressions in Excel. The Bottom Line. Microsoft Excel and other software can do all the calculations, but it's good to know how the mechanics of simple linear regression work. Year Sales GDP 1. Multiple R 0. Article Sources. Investopedia requires writers to use primary sources to support their work. These include white papers, government data, original reporting, and interviews with industry experts.

We also reference original research from other reputable publishers where appropriate. You can learn more about the standards we follow in producing accurate, unbiased content in our editorial policy. Compare Accounts.

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Learn the parking the the is installed be the where you. IP devices for. Notify allows connection display has account been в 2 Iconduck Reduced.Commercial acumen Superb skills in financial analysis techniques, regression analysis, and being able to extract the relationships between the market place, fiscal behaviour, budgets and performance are essential to the FA. Innovative outlook Though there be set routines, techniques and tech systems, an FA who is innovative will always get the best of all fixed parameters. Some payout statistics: According to roberthalf.

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If you want to make a difference to the start of your career then do the Financial analyst course at the reputed Imarticus Learning. The benefits far outweigh the costs and it makes perfect logic from the figures cited above. Why wait? Enrol today! Call me. Chat with us. Hit enter to search or ESC to close. Co-created with Imarticus Learning.

Know more. MBA in Investment Banking. Co-created with Jain University. MBA in Fintech. Co-created with Grant Thornton. Professional Certification in FinTech. Credit Risk and Underwriting Prodegree. Thank you for the Interest. We will get back to you shortly. Something went wrong. Please fill again. Field will not be visible to web visitor. I accept Imarticus Terms and conditions. For Online Course Enquiries. About Imarticus. The sales you are forecasting would be the dependent variable because their value "depends" on the value of GDP and the GDP would be the independent variable.

You would then need to determine the strength of the relationship between these two variables in order to forecast sales. The formula to calculate the relationship between two variables is called covariance. This calculation shows you the direction of the relationship.

If one variable increases and the other variable tends to also increase, the covariance would be positive. If one variable goes up and the other tends to go down, then the covariance would be negative. The actual number you get from calculating this can be hard to interpret because it isn't standardized. A covariance of five, for instance, can be interpreted as a positive relationship, but the strength of the relationship can only be said to be stronger than if the number was four or weaker than if the number was six.

We need to standardize the covariance in order to allow us to better interpret and use it in forecasting, and the result is the correlation calculation. The correlation calculation simply takes the covariance and divides it by the product of the standard deviation of the two variables. Now that we know how the relative relationship between the two variables is calculated, we can develop a regression equation to forecast or predict the variable we desire.

Below is the formula for a simple linear regression. The "y" is the value we are trying to forecast, the "b" is the slope of the regression line, the "x" is the value of our independent value, and the "a" represents the y-intercept. The regression equation simply describes the relationship between the dependent variable y and the independent variable x. The intercept, or "a," is the value of y dependent variable if the value of x independent variable is zero, and so is sometimes simply referred to as the 'constant.

This value, when the change in GDP is zero, is the intercept. Take a look at the graph below to see a graphical depiction of a regression equation. In this graph, there are only five data points represented by the five dots on the graph. Linear regression attempts to estimate a line that best fits the data a line of best fit and the equation of that line results in the regression equation. Now that you understand some of the background that goes into a regression analysis, let's do a simple example using Excel's regression tools.

We'll build on the previous example of trying to forecast next year's sales based on changes in GDP. The next table lists some artificial data points, but these numbers can be easily accessible in real life. Just eyeballing the table, you can see that there is going to be a positive correlation between sales and GDP. Both tend to go up together. Using Excel, all you have to do is click the Tools drop-down menu, select Data Analysis and from there choose Regression.

The popup box is easy to fill in from there; your Input Y Range is your "Sales" column and your Input X Range is the change in GDP column; choose the output range for where you want the data to show up on your spreadsheet and press OK. You should see something similar to what is given in the table below:. Regression Statistics Coefficients. The major outputs you need to be concerned about for simple linear regression are the R-squared , the intercept constant and the GDP's beta b coefficient.

The R-squared number in this example is This shows how well our model predicts or forecasts the future sales, suggesting that the explanatory variables in the model predicted Next, we have an intercept of And finally, the GDP beta or correlation coefficient of So how would you use this simple model in your business?

Well if your research leads you to believe that the next GDP change will be a certain percentage, you can plug that percentage into the model and generate a sales forecast. This can help you develop a more objective plan and budget for the upcoming year. Of course, this is just a simple regression and there are models that you can build that use several independent variables called multiple linear regressions.

But multiple linear regressions are more complicated and have several issues that would need another article to discuss. Financial Analysis.